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This is an old revision of MorgansCompTheoryNotes10Oct2011 made by MorganAdmin on 2011-10-17 09:34:11.



Moffett, James. Teaching the Universe of Discourse. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1968. Print.

Vygotsky, Lev, and Alex Kozulin. Thought and Language. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1986. Print.

Bitzer, Lloyd. "The Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 (1968): 1-14. Print.

Vatz, Richard. "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric 6 (1973): 154-161. Print.

Scott, Robert L, James R Andrews, Howard H Martin, J Richard McNally, William F Nelson, Michael M Osborn, Arthur L Smith, and Harold Zyskind. The Prospect of Rhetoric: Report of the National Development Project. Ed. Lloyd F Bitzer and Edwin Black. N.p.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971. 228-236. Print.

Bartholomae, David. When a Writer Can't Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford Press, 1985. 134-165. Print.

Bartholomae, David, and Anthony R Petrosky. Facts, Artifacts and Counterfacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers, 1986. Print.

Cognitive Development and the BW, Lunsford

L is following Shaughnessy in looking closely at - theorizing - the situation.

L is trying to diagnose a BW problem from a cognitive perspective. Addresses a question of ow are we to work wit h BW students - as though they are in a lower dev stage? as though they are not yet forming scientific concepts? something else?

task transfer problems -
students have difficulty deriving the abstract principles taught in one situation and applying those to another situation.

example? Use a barometer to find the height of a building

The value of this article is in L attempting to come at BW problems from cog perspective, placing it in Vygotsky - who comp rhet people generally know. She's creating some shared knowledge rather than using idiosyncratic or impressionistic terms and concepts or teacher lore.

So: Vygotsky's idea of concept formation, Piaget's de-centering, Duckworth, and Ryle's idea of the difference between knowing how and knowing that. Chomsky's distinction between performance and competence ... to

students learn by doing and then by extrapolating principles from their process (302)

learning by doing rather than learning by the study of abstract principles - such as
usage rules

Connects all this with Polyani's understanding of social and conventional "rules" - that is, cognitive rules or maxims that need to be integrated into practical knowledge. Ie golden rectangle, or 3X4 rules of composition.

which leads Lunsford to some guidelines for the BW classroom
never teacher-centered
set lectures avoided - mini-lectures used
small workshops of apprentice-like writers
spend time writing, reading what they have written, talking about that writing

how should a teacher prep then?
create assignments and tasks that allow students to exercise in the modes of analytic and synthetic thought continuously

Sample plan - develop as an example of working inductively
note how it is really sequenced to add dimensions to the developing definition -

Essay and whole writing
1- p 307. sets aside the developmental notion of sentence - para - essay. Shaughnessy et al do too. Start with paras and essays NOT to perfect the form but to engage the entire process. By same token, design course to work with analytic modes rather than narrative and descriptive, for which writers already have language prepared.

She illustrates diagnosing a general problem and developing a set of assignments to address that problem 308.

Think it's easy? Try it. Try Writing Assignment A in class -

Related scaffolding: S. Downes's

Diving In. Shaughnessy

1976: Her attempt to get teachers to re-think what was termed remedial writing at the time - and which was addressed as remedial- and which still is. ENGL 0900. Taught to the handicapped, generally by middle- and HS teachers who, we assume, are re-addressing HS concepts.

Guarding the Tower
Converting the Natives
Sounding the Depths
Diving In

In doing this, S characterizes the BW's concerns about writing and some diagnoses of common patterns and behaviors.

Could take two foci
look at the characteristics of the teacher
look at / catalogue the characteristics of the BW -

Set S's concerns and conceptions in this essay against Ivory's presentation of Bloom's taxonomy. S suggests we need to look at the task before we assign people to the taxnomy. That is, are students writing the way they are because the rules of the game have changed, and they are still playing the old game? University tak s to explore, carefully, the advancement of formal learning - not just assert opinion without a display of evidence. That is, habit and context, or truley developmental level?

William Perry and Lid Ed, Bizzell

Cross-talk to Lunsford and Shaughnessy -
Recall Berlin: What else do we teach when we teach writing?
Like Berlin, Bizzell looking at the cultural situation in which we teach writing - which, in this case, she sees Perry as providing a map.

In our context, this is an answer to S's Diving In, who mentions Perry at the end of her article as a matter of developing more sophisticated developmental models for adults. But there are problems.

Bizzell's crit: What is Perry actually describing? A natural development? something cognitive? social? universal, or white and western?

Undertakes > the student is aware of positioning?
philosophical assumptions > not cognitive stages.

And so B opens her crit into this scheme as a way of inculcating students into the world view of the lib arts university - p 322 is core. see Inventing the University

The temptation is to align particular writing behaviors - papers the show particular features = with Perry's terms and model.

We can't be sure if Perry's model can provide any explanatory power to writers - that is, Perry's model doesn't explain what we're seeing, which could be coincidental and dependent on other elements.

B recommends against framing curricula on Perry - nor does Perry's scheme tell us much about how we should approach the practice: Do we challenge or nurture a level? Nor does the scheme suggest we can move students along more quickly ...

Perry's scheme describes the effects of a curriculum, but that does not mean we can turn the effects into a model of causes for another curriculum. 325

Value: scheme can help us understand some phenomena in student papers - it's a description of socialization into an academic community. The scheme can provide us with a cultural map of what we're requiring of students entering the community

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